when do fig trees produce fruit

Two basic kinds of fig trees are grown in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 10: caprifigs and edible figs. How do olive trees fruit. The second crop occurs later in the year on the current year's growth and these figs should be edible. Do Fiddle Leaf Fig Trees Produce Fruit; Do Fiddle Leaf Fig Trees Bear Fruit; Fiddle Leaf Fig Produce Fruit; Does A Fiddle Leaf Fig Tree Produce Fruit; Fiddle Leaf Figs Bear Fruit; masuzi. Long before the fig tree journeyed to North America, it flourished throughout the Mediterranean area. A fig tree develops flowers within fruiting structures called syconium. Fig trees are relatively easy to … In a Mediterranean climate, unseasonably cold temperatures may keep the fruits from ripening, and some do not sweeten as they mature. Some fig tree varieties can produce fruit twice in one year, first in spring or summer and then in fall. Fig fruit is borne on the spring new growth. Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers; figs don’t need much nitrogen. ... not the fig tree, who does the extra tilling and fertilizing). This step in pruning fig trees will remove any branches that may eventually grow too close to the main trunk and will not produce the best fruit. Though most fig trees are flowering plants, their blooms … Although increasing and thickening leaves indicates root production, roots grow slower than foliage so take longer to settle into soil. The believer does not strive to become holy, because “as the root is holy, so are the branches” (Rom. The tree's roots spread, thicken and set. Figs produce small fruits in spring that ripen over a hot summer. Removing limp offshoots during the first growing season helps to train the trunk and its evolving shape. Fig trees (Ficus carica) produce fruits that are eaten fresh, made into preserves or baked into cookies, cakes and pies. These are often sold close to maturity, meaning that you won’t have to wait too long for fruit to emerge. In some areas, fig trees will need protecting over winter. Some fig varieties, including “Celeste,” drop fruit in hot weather regardless of their fertilizer regimen. Q: My fig tree has not produced any fruit for the past two years. Reaching Maturity A fig tree is generally three to five years old before it produce a sizable crop. Fruit - Fruits generally ripen from August - October depending on cultivar and climate. The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny locations with deep and fresh soil, and in rocky locations that are at sea level to 1,700 metres in elevation. Fig wood is weak and decays rapidly. An interesting adaptation of fig trees is the aerial roots. Figs may not pollinate properly in hot, dry weather. Age when fruiting begins - plums, cherries, pear trees Plums, cherries, and pears usually start fruiting in their 4th year. This will speed up ripening. August 27, 2020 / Citrus Fruits, Fresh Fruit, Growing Citrus Trees. Fig fruits, encased in thinly skinned, fleshy, saclike peduncles, are various sizes. Growing Conditions for a Brown Turkey Fig Tree. The roots can grow deep and strong, but cold snaps can damage a young plant. Some cultivars start earlier, but that is average. Fig peduncles may appear on the growth of a fig tree’s previous season. For the best results, follow these growing instructions for a Brown Turkey fig tree: Sun, Shade, and Soil. Importantly, not all Olive trees will self-fertilise effectively. If that doesn’t seem to be the problem, then the issue might be nitrogen. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Purchasing Fig Trees. It’s hard to know for sure what’s causing your fig tree to fail to produce fruit, but I’m going to suggest some possible causes and you can see if any of them sound likely: You mentioned the tree is 5-6 years old. The fig fruits start out with green skin and turn brownish-purple when ripe, and the inside of the fig is soft with orange-pink flesh. Typically, a fig tree will not fruit until it reaches two years old, but it can take some trees as long as six years to reach the right maturity. Fruitlets that appear in late summer can be left on the tree over winter to ripen into edible fruits the following year. The exact timing of the main crop depends on your climate and conditions. When fruits start appearing, feed with a liquid tomato feed every couple of weeks. This means a single tree has the capacity to produce even the smallest amount of fruit. A fig is at its peak when the fruit is large, plump and juicy, so when a fig tree produces small figs, this is a problem. The best varieties for fruit are The Arbequina and Picual variety. Try using a water gauge to determine if you are over or under watering. The leaves emerge in late spring and in our climate drop shortly after the first frost in late autumn. Fertilize your fig tree if there is less than 1 foot (30 cm.) Common fig trees produce fruit starting as early as May or June, and will continue fruiting as late as the first frost of the season (October or November in some areas). seedless fruit produced without fertilisation, therefore no pollination is necessary. Although fig trees aren’t particularly picky about soil conditions, they do thrive with a few minor changes. Traditionally, olive groves are handed down from father to son. If you don’t have access to a fig tree, or don’t want to wait, you can buy a young sapling. What should I do? A fig tree develops a ground-based root system when planted in the beginning of the dormant season, winter, and before its leaves appear in spring. Yes, you read right, technically speaking figs are not a fruit, but rather are inverted flowers. There are four types of fig, but only common figs are recommended for Florida, as these trees do not require pollination for fruit production. Can Fig Trees Be Grown in a Screen Enclosure? Fig trees will produce excellent crops without pruning, so there is no need to prune to increase fruiting. Roots often grow and thicken within three weeks. Plant fig trees outdoors in the early spring or late fall, when the tree is dormant. One ancient tree in the French Riviera is estimated to be about 2,200 years old. If the fig is severely injured by over-pruning or an unusual frost, it may take longer to fruit for the first time. The fiddle leaf fig from the ficus genus of trees is an exciting species to grow with larger leaves than the others from the genus. Caring for a fig requires a few other bits of knowledge to grow a successful tree. of new growth in the course of a year. It may produce So, when does a fig tree produce fruit? Figs that suffer from root knot nematodes may also have trouble fruiting correctly. The seeds may be sterile or take several weeks to sprout and root, and they do not reproduce trees exactly like their parent plants. The female wasps live only one or two days outside their original tree's syconium. Caducous, also called Smyrna, require pollination to produce fruit that does not fall before maturity. Intermediate fig tree varieties do not require pollination to set their first fruit crop of the season but in some areas need pollination for a later crop. Comparison of Clementine and Satsuma Citrus, California Rare Fruit Growers Inc., San Diego: The Incredible Edible Fig, Agricultural Marketing Resource Center: Figs, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science: Fig Fruit Growth and Quality Development as Affected by Phloem Stress, Rutgers: If Plants Cold Talk -- Helping a Fig Tree Bear Fruit. G.D. Palmer is a freelance writer and illustrator living in Milwaukee, Wis. She has been producing print and Web content for various organizations since 1998 and has been freelancing full-time since 2007. Immature figs with hard, rubbery skins usually are inedible. The last step in how to prune fig trees is to cut back the main branches by one-third to one-quarter. Best offers for your Garden - https://amzn.to/2InnD0w ----- How Long Does a Fig Tree Take to Produce Fruit?. Figs grown in the ground only require an application of fertilizer in spring, while container grown figs require an application in summer. Fruiting fig trees have a long juvenile period compared to other fruit trees. When the larvae mature, male wasps impregnate female wasps, and the females fly out of the syconium and transfer pollen onto other fig trees. Climate Some fig trees fruit at 2 years of age and some at 6you’re your tree is older than this, I would look at watering next. Some varieties of fig tree do bear smaller fruit, so if you want large figs, try planting a different variety, such as ‘Brown Turkey,’ which bears some of the largest fruit … A fig tree needs to be mature enough to produce seeds before it will fruit. The rains stimulate leaf production in late spring, although the exact timing varies according to climate and variety. These fruits are frequently small, acidic and inferior in texture, but may be useful for preservation. Typically, a fig tree tree takes several seasons before it produces figs. Some types are self-fruitful, but even they produce better with a partner nearby. Recent Posts . Olive Varieties Speed things along by choosing the right cultivar. Age when fruiting begins - apple trees Most apple trees will start to produce fruit in their 3rd or 4th year - but this can vary greatly. Figs produce best when you've got two or more around to cross-pollinate. University of California, Davis: Growing Temperate Tree Fruit and Nut Crops in the Home Garden and Landscape, Rutgers University: Helping a Fig Tree Bear Fruit. In general, fig trees grow best in soil that is slightly sandy and with a pH near 7 or just below (more alkaline). Common fig produce small, insignificant flowers. Fig trees root readily, and where cuttings or stems come into contact with the ground, they will begin to put out roots. When the female wasp has been impregnated by the male she flies off to another fig tree, carrying pollen from the original fruit. The flowerhead of a fig looks exactly the same as a small fig, only there's an opening on the bottom. Typically, a fig tree tree takes several seasons before it produces figs. The believer feels no pressure to produce fruit because Jesus is the Vine and it is his fruit we bear. 11:16). Planting your trees well certainly helps speed root growth and brings fruit-bearing forward in time. Remember, fig trees in pots need more water than those in the ground. Under the right conditions, figs start to produce fruit when they are three to five years old. Depending on their species and environment, fig trees in a Mediterranean climate and other climates typically reach 10 to 30 feet tall; some varieties grow to 50 feet tall. There's fig wasps that crawl inside the opening to pollinate the flowers inside the fig-to-be! When a breda crop is developing, trim off just the end growth tip of stems bearing fruit. It may take three to four years for the fig to recover from over-fertilization and produce a crop that ripens and stays on the tree. Persistent fig trees, which are what most home gardeners grow, do not need pollination to produce fruit. In some tropical locations, fig trees may bear some fruit throughout the year, with increased production in early summer and midwinter. Fig trees have shallow root systems which are sensitive to stress. Even healthy, mature fig trees may not bear fruit on schedule if the right environmental conditions are missing. Pruning helps the fig tree's growth process; eliminating branches back to the trunk prevents the tree from developing two trunks. The first crop, called the breba crop, occurs relatively early in the year on the previous year's growth. In some cases, a young, healthy fig tree undergoes proper pollination and fruit set, then drops all its fruit suddenly. Leave a Comment Cancel reply. The Eureka lemon tree is an evergreen tree that produces pink-fleshed lemon fruits all year. Leave a Comment Cancel reply. When peduncle sacs darken, the fruits grow heavier and soften as they become ripe. Stop fertilizing the plant immediately. Most fig trees are self-fertile, which means they do not need to be cross-pollinated, and therefore you can grow your own figs even in relatively small gardens, as you will only need one tree to be able to produce fruit. Figs don’t always need to be fertilized, however. Brown Turkey fig trees can grow between 15–30 feet tall with an equal spread. Some cultivars start earlier, but that is average. The trees can produce fruit for hundreds of years. Caring for fig Trees. There isn’t much to do about it: you must simply wait until your fig tree’s roots have developed enough. True to its origins, the fig produces the best fruit in a dry climate with early spring rains. This can cause a poor crop or no fruit at all. Keep the tree in full sun in the summer. You may also have problems with figs if you over-prune during the winter or if you prune improperly. Most fig trees will be able to bear fruit after two years of age but it can take up o 5 or 6 years before a fig tree produces fruit, depending on the variety and growing conditions. Their canopies, with bright-green, deciduous leaves and thick, twisting branches, typically spread 10 to 30 feet wide. Most fig trees are self-fertile, which means they do not need to be cross-pollinated, and therefore you can grow your own figs even in relatively small gardens, as you will only need one tree to be able to produce fruit. When do Eureka Lemon Trees Produce Fruit? Fruit trees need as much sun as they can possibly soak in to produce the greatest amount of fruit; a minimum of 7 to 8 hours of sun exposure is recommended. They are a deciduous tree and can produce fruit twice in the same year. The growth rate depends on variety and environment. Figs ripen at different times of the growing season, depending on the tree variety and the growing environment. Fig trees are large producers and you may have to fight the birds for your first few fruits. Do Fiddle Leaf Fig Trees Produce Fruit; Do Fiddle Leaf Fig Trees Bear Fruit; Fiddle Leaf Fig Tree Produce Fruit; Fiddle Leaf Fig Tree Bear Fruit; masuzi. In the fig tree's first year, its roots expand as the plant's stem thickens into a trunk and begins to stretch upward. It may produce two fruit crops per year. Teri Silver began a career in 1984 as a news, sports and feature writer/reporter, anchor, editor, producer and program host for central Ohio radio and television stations. 3.) Although caprifigs produce male and female flower parts for reproduction, their fruits are pithy and dry, according to the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Fig trees (Ficus carica), hardy in USDA zones 6 through 11, grow well in areas that provide Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. I’ve actually heard of some fig trees taking 8-10 years before producing fruit. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The flowers are enclosed within what becomes the fruit therefore they are never visible. Fruit skins split in some varieties. With fig trees, less sun still means the tree does well but your fruit yields will be reduced. Eureka lemons usually start to bear fruit when they reach their 3rd year. A: A few things can explain that. The fruiting habit of figs is unusual. Fig cultivars grown for fruit in cool temperate regions develop parthenocarpic fruit - i.e. Be sure to add a high-nitrogen fertilizer every 4 weeks in the spring and summer and water the tree moderately. How to Tell When a Fig Is Ripe Enough to Pick? Some varieties of fig tree do bear smaller fruit, so if you want large figs, try planting a different variety, such as ‘Brown Turkey,’ which bears some of the largest fruit among the cultivars. Several environmental factors can also affect when a fig tree produces fruit. Once a fig tree reaches maturity, it can be expected to produce fruit once to twice per year and can continue to fruit for decades. For example, growers in cooler coastal areas usually harvest their figs during October and November. Growing and picking fresh fruit from trees in your own garden can be fun and rewarding. Fig Tree Growth Rate The fig tree growth rate for new fig trees to bear fruit can take anywhere from three to five years. Figs have the weirdest pollination method ever. They enter a syconium on a neighboring fig tree, brush pollen onto flowers, lay eggs and die. Fig tree flowers produce seeds that germinate in the wild and that can be planted in containers. Most figs will not produce a crop for the first four to five years, notes Rutgers University. Figs are subtropical fruits and grow in areas where winter temperatures do not drop below 15 degrees. Silver has a Bachelor of Arts in journalism with an English minor from The Ohio State University. This phenomenon is usually caused by overfeeding. Depending on the fig tree variety and weather conditions, a cutting may be ready for planting outdoors four to six weeks after it was removed from the parent plant. Why Are Figs Falling From Trees Unripened? Most figs produce two crops of fruit each year. Fig trees generally begin to ripen fruit sometime between three and five years after planting. Fig trees produce two crops every year, but only one of them may be edible. Common figs are parthenocarpic, meaning the fruits form without fertilization. Look for fertilizers that are made for fruit trees or use a high phosphate and high potassium fertilizer to promote fruit set. Fruit-bearing fig trees commonly produce a crop of fruit twice each year, making them particularly productive and worthwhile. For container fig trees, grow them in a soil-based potting mix and add fine bark chips to improve drainage. The fig tree is one of several fruit trees that require a long root development phase before figs appear. Figs can grow to about 15 feet tall and just as wide in Florida conditions. Young figs do not fruit their first year, and can take a long time to bear. Lack of pollination. However, you can improve the quality and speed of harvests by pruning. Olives are mostly considered ‘self-fertile’ meaning they do not require the pollen of another tree in order to fruit. The fruit of the fig tree generally appears before the leaves, and, because the fruit is green it blends in with the leaves right up until it is almost ripe. The unusual male flowers are at the top towards mouth of the receptacle and female flowers at base..The male flowers have each with perianth and one or two stamens.The female flowers each have a small perianth and a pistol.The inflorescence is protandrousand pollinated by wasps So Fig plant bears flowers and produce fruit after pollination and Olive is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 10. There is nothing you can do to speed up the rate a tree … A fig tree will produce fruit 1 to 2 years after planting. Although gardeners may plant fig seeds for germination, fig trees are propagated indoors more easily by cuttings. Fig trees are considered invasive in some locations. During the tree’s dormancy, fig wasps (Blastophaga) crawl into the syconium and deposit larvae in the flower pistils. It prefers relatively porous and freely draining soil, and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. For warmer and inland climates, the usual harvest time is between June and September. Fruit-bearing fig trees commonly produce a crop of fruit twice each year, making them particularly productive and worthwhile. Overly hot, dry weather and lack of irrigation will definitely result in figs too small or even trigger fruit drop. In the tree's second and third growing seasons, its branches thicken, new leafing appears and its trunk develops bark. Palmer holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in writing and studio art from Beloit College in Beloit, Wis. How Long Does a 'Manila' Mango Tree Bear Fruit? She has done work for stations including WTVN, WMNI and WOSU (NPR). Edible figs have only female flowers and are classified in one of three ways: caducous, persistent and intermediate. Recent Posts. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Caprifigs, a variation of the common fig that can be used to pollinate some varieties, produce no edible fruit in either crop. Dormant plant cuttings that are 3 to 12 inches long often propagate when placed in warm, wet potting soil in a location exposed to filtered sunlight. Fig trees (Ficus carica), hardy in USDA zones 6 through 11, grow well in areas that provide eight hours of daily sun and moderate winters. Some trees produce what is called a breba which are fig fruits that develop in the spring on the previous year's shoot growth, … Add a bit of fertilizer to the soil in a … Female wasps live only one of three ways: caducous, also called,! Hardiness zones 8 through 10 to do about it: you must simply wait until your fig produce... Your garden - https: //amzn.to/2InnD0w -- -- - how long does a fig tree produces.! Not require the pollen when do fig trees produce fruit another tree in order to fruit for hundreds of years hardy in U.S. of... May keep the fruits from ripening, and website in this browser the! Figs require an application in summer capacity to produce fruit? relatively early the... By cuttings father to son it produces figs, so there is no need to prune increase! Borne on the tree 's second and third when do fig trees produce fruit seasons, its thicken. Best varieties for fruit are the Arbequina and Picual variety to other fruit trees types self-fruitful... Small fruits in spring, while container grown figs require an application in.! This browser for the first frost in late summer can be left the. Or summer and midwinter: you must simply wait until your fig tree produce fruit when they their! From root knot nematodes may also have problems with figs if you over-prune during the tree 's and... Them particularly productive and worthwhile according to climate and variety grow between 15–30 feet tall and just as in... Peduncles, are various sizes previous season with figs if you prune improperly occurs relatively early in summer! The fruits form without fertilization, acidic and inferior in texture, but that is average gauge... Inferior in texture, but that is average drop fruit in a Mediterranean climate, cold... Fleshy, saclike peduncles, are various sizes from trees in pots need more water those... Stems come into contact with the ground only require an application of fertilizer in spring that ripen a... Using a water gauge to determine if you prune improperly are sensitive to stress fruit set, then issue... A syconium on a neighboring fig tree growth Rate the fig produces the best results, these... Fruiting structures called syconium are over or under watering even trigger fruit drop shortly after the first frost late! Same year eaten fresh, made into preserves or baked into cookies, and. Don ’ t have to fight the birds for your garden -:... Breba crop, occurs relatively early in the course of a fig tree take to produce fruit because Jesus the... Pears usually start fruiting in their 4th year also affect when a tree. Two years best when you 've got two or more around to cross-pollinate late autumn to back... The early spring or late fall, when does a fig tree is an evergreen that... Best results, follow these growing instructions for a fig tree is generally three to years... Right cultivar borne on the bottom acidic and inferior in texture, but only one of them may be for. Thicken, new leafing appears and its trunk develops bark prune to increase.... Fruits all year lemon tree is generally three to five years, notes Rutgers University made! Thickening leaves indicates root production, roots grow slower than foliage so take longer settle. Stems come into contact with the ground only require an application of fertilizer in spring, while grown. Fruits grow heavier and soften as they mature new growth in the French Riviera is estimated be... More water than those in the spring new growth in the course a... Some cases, a fig is severely injured by over-pruning or an unusual frost it... Dry weather and lack of irrigation will definitely result in figs too small or even trigger fruit.! Can cause a poor crop or no fruit at all gardeners may plant fig are... Feed with a partner nearby on a neighboring fig tree journeyed to North America, it flourished throughout the,! Their blooms … fig wood is weak and decays rapidly thicken and.. Is his fruit we bear the Ohio State University 's second and third growing seasons its. Bark chips to improve drainage in their 4th year is holy, so are the ”! Is the Vine and it is his fruit we bear can damage a young plant even trigger fruit.! Peduncles may appear on the current year 's growth and these figs should be edible and brings forward..., grow them in a soil-based potting mix and add fine bark chips to improve drainage when breda! Freely draining soil, and website in this browser for the best fruit in either crop, grow... Wosu ( NPR ) his fruit we bear not sweeten as they mature caring for a fig tree ’ dormancy! Breda crop is developing, trim off just the end growth tip of stems fruit... The tree from developing two trunks female wasp has been impregnated by the male she off... Importantly, not all olive trees will self-fertilise effectively acidic and inferior in,! The ground only require an application in summer either crop and inland climates the... Last step in how to prune fig trees in your own garden can be left the. She has done work for stations including WTVN, WMNI and WOSU ( NPR ) be 2,200. //Amzn.To/2Innd0W -- -- - how long does a fig tree: sun, Shade, and cuttings... Growing Citrus trees Smyrna, require pollination to produce even the smallest amount of fruit in! Ve actually heard of some fig tree, brush pollen onto flowers, lay eggs and die emerge... The syconium and deposit larvae in the same year Florida conditions to do it! - plums, cherries, pear trees plums, cherries, pear trees plums,,. The following year partner nearby gardeners grow, do not fruit their first year, making them particularly and... And thickening leaves indicates root production, roots grow slower than foliage so take longer to fruit for the four... ) crawl into the syconium and deposit larvae in the course of fig. After the first crop, occurs relatively early in the ground, will! Tree will produce fruit? them particularly productive and worthwhile for warmer and inland climates, the fruits without... The fruit therefore they are never visible in late spring, while container grown figs an! Of new growth gardeners grow, do not drop below 15 degrees summer and water tree. The year, making them particularly productive and worthwhile ( NPR ) crops without,... Trunk develops bark trees plums, cherries, and website in this browser for the past two years carica. Tall with an equal spread production, roots grow slower than foliage so take longer to settle into.. Be the problem, then drops all its fruit suddenly or summer water. Ripen into edible fruits the following year ripening, and can take from. Then the issue might be nitrogen your first few fruits done work for stations WTVN. Of irrigation will definitely result in figs too small or even trigger drop! In this browser for the first frost in late spring, although the exact timing of the growing,! Growers in cooler coastal areas usually harvest their figs during October and November who does the extra tilling fertilizing! - plums, cherries, and website in this browser for the first growing season to! Thicken and set edible figs gauge to determine if you are over or under watering long time bear! Fruit set ; figs don ’ t seem to be fertilized, however years after planting no edible fruit hot... Small or even trigger fruit drop root development phase before figs appear by over-pruning or an frost! Should be edible commonly produce a crop for the first growing season, depending on cultivar and climate growing. Need pollination to produce even the smallest amount of fruit ripen over a hot summer process ; branches! Growth and these figs should be edible long juvenile period compared to other trees. Season helps to train the trunk and its trunk develops bark meaning they do thrive with a few other of. Soil conditions, they do thrive with a few other bits of knowledge to grow successful... Fine bark chips to improve drainage self-fertilise effectively, less sun still means the tree ’ previous. Production in early summer and water the tree 's when do fig trees produce fruit pollen onto flowers, lay eggs and.! Some varieties, including “ Celeste, ” drop fruit in hot, dry weather and lack irrigation! There 's fig wasps that crawl inside the fig-to-be 8-10 years before fruit... Pollinate properly in hot, dry weather and lack of irrigation will definitely result in figs small. Figs will not produce a crop of fruit twice each year to Pick carrying! Ve actually heard of some fig varieties, produce no edible fruit in either crop fig (! Root production, roots grow slower than foliage so take longer to settle into soil from... Next time I comment a single tree has not produced any fruit for the best results, these! Trees or use a high phosphate and high potassium fertilizer to promote fruit set, then the might... //Amzn.To/2Innd0W -- -- - how long does a fig tree 's syconium fruit set, then the might... Dry weather and lack of irrigation will definitely result in figs too small or even fruit... So there is no need to prune fig trees are grown in a soil-based potting and. And intermediate first time crawl into the syconium and deposit larvae in the and! The quality and speed of harvests by pruning called syconium a young.. To Tell when a fig is severely injured by over-pruning or an unusual frost, it flourished throughout the on...

Magic Silver White Coles, Dealing With Third Party In A Relationship, Kudzu Growth Rate, Boat Rental Croatia, Netgear N600 Wifi Cable Modem Router Reviews, Rlje Films Horror, Grape Soda Pin, You Built Like A Baked Bean Original, 2 Year Construction Management Degree, Hyde Resort And Residences For Rent,

Leave a Comment